Children who grow up with alcoholic parents face a greater risk of having abusive or violent relationships as teenagers, a study has shown.
Researchers found having these experiences early had a negative impact – especially during the critical preschool years and middle childhood.
The findings of the US study were released after looking at adolescents who all had a father with a drinking disorder.
It was also found that there is more marital conflict in a home with alcoholics.
Additionally, mothers whose partners had alcohol use disorders tended to be more depressed, which led to them showing less affection to their children.
These conditions interfere with a child's ability to regulate their emotions and behavior.
A study has found the risk for having abusive or violent relationships as a teenager is linked to family experiences much earlier in life (stock photo)
'Although teen dating violence is typically viewed as a problem related specifically to adolescent development, our findings indicate that the risk for aggressive behaviour and involvement in dating violence are related to stressors experienced much earlier in life,' said lead study author Dr Jennifer Livingston from the University at Buffalo Research Institute on Addictions in New York.
'It appears that family dynamics occurring in the preschool years and in middle childhood are critical in the development of aggression and dating violence in the teenage years.'
A little-known treatment has promised alcoholics the seemingly impossible: recovery while drinking in moderation.
Naltrexone offers a fresh alternative to the all-or-nothing approaches popularised by organisations such as Alcohol Anonymous.
In essence, users can still enjoy their favourite beer, wine and spirits, but in moderation.
Called the Sinclair Method, it was devised in the 1970s and uses opioid-controlling drugs combined with self-discipline and, paradoxically, alcohol, to give addicts renewed control.
It boasts a success rate of nearly 80%.
Naltrexone is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and works by blocking the receptors that trigger the release of alcohol-related endorphins.