By Colin Fernadez Science Correspondent and Bana Shriky For The Daily Mail
Published: 19:01 BST, 11 July 2019 | Updated: 20:30 BST, 11 July 2019
A computer has beaten five of the world's champion players at poker — a game once thought too difficult for machines to master.
It is the latest milestone marking the superior powers of machines over people and the first time a computer has beaten more than one opponent in a complex game of strategy and calculation.
Computers first defeated the human world champion at chess in 1996 — and the even-more complex Chinese strategy game of Go two years ago.
But poker has posed a tougher challenge as it involves several players around the table.
And unlike in chess or Go, the computer does not have access to all the information available as it cannot see its opponent's cards.
So it has to guess if a human player is bluffing — pretending to hold a better hand than it does.
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A computer has beaten five of the world's champion players at poker — a game once thought too difficult for machines to master
Not only did it call its opponent's bluff, it was brilliant at bluffing itself.
It was also able to keep its rivals guessing - playing wildly at times and conservatively at others.
The human poker aces it crushed included Darren Elias, record-holder of most World Poker Tour titles, and Chris 'Jesus' Ferguson, winner of six World Series of Poker events.
Each pro separately played 5,000 hands of poker against five copies of Pluribus, developed at Carnegie Mellon University in the US in collaboration with Facebook.
In another experiment involving 13 pros, all of whom have won more than one million US dollars playing poker, Pluribus played five pros at a time for a total of 10,000 hands and again emerged victorious.
Its developer Professor Tuomas Sandholm, of Carnegie Mellon University in the US, has said: 'Pluribus achieved superhuman performance at multi-player poker, which is a recognised milestone in artificial intelligence and in game theory