As a solution to solve the problems of increased traffic congestion, the 1855 Act of Parliament was passed giving a green light to the construction of an underground rail network between Paddington and Farringdon Street via King’s Cross.
The Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground railway, serving six stations, opened back in 1863, and the following year the Hammersmith and City Railway opened.
The underground railways rapidly expanded and eventually incorporated New Cross on the East London Railway and Whitechapel and Hounslow and Wimbledon on the District.
The Metropolitan expanded into the north-east of the city, creating a new suburb dubbed ‘Metro-land’ in the process which included Chesham, Watford and Harrow.
With the advancement of digging technologies, by the late 19th century the first tube lines were being created, and in 1890 the City and South London Railway, which now comprises of part of the Northern line, was opened.
In 1900 the Central London Railway – now known as the Central line – was opened, which spanned from Bank to Shepherd’s Bush.
Three years later the various