Ethnic minorities are twice as likely to die from Covid-19 than white people because they live in deprived areas and work in public-facing jobs, more data has suggested.
Numerous studies, including government-funded research, have shown black, Asian and ethnic minority (BAME) people are being hit hardest by the disease.
Some early scientific papers suggested that the increased risk among minorities may have been fuelled by higher rates of underlying health conditions or genetic differences.
But an increasing body of evidence has pointed to other factors - such as job types and geography - as the real driver behind the discrepancy between races. The latest report, by the Office for National Statistics, adds more weight to that theory.
It found the mortality risk for black and South East Asian men was two-and-a-half times greater than white men, even when comorbidities and age had been factored in. Among women the risk was double.
Experts behind the report said the findings show the risk was most likely explained by other factors mostly linked back to poverty.
Living in overcrowded households, working front-facing jobs and relying on public transport raise the risk of getting infected in the first place.
Covid-19 is a disease that kills fewer than one in 100 people it infects, so the more people contract it, the greater chance of a fatality occurring.
The most deprived areas in the country are also home to high proportions of people from BAME backgrounds.
A mountain of studies have shown the poorest Brits are twice as likely to die from the disease as the wealthiest people in the country.
Ethnic minorities are twice as likely to die from coronavirus than whites. Black people have been the worst-affected by the disease, following Brits from South East Asian backgrounds
Minorities were more likely to suffer from comorbidities, but the risk from Covid-19 remained true even when these had been factored in - suggesting job types and geography were the driving factors
Covid-19 death rate among men: The mortality risk was greatest among men with black African heritage, who were killed at a rate of 287.7 per 100,000 people. Among Bangladeshi and black Caribbean men, the rate was only slightly smaller, at 270 per 100,000
Covid-19 death rate among women: The rate was highest among black Caribbean women (128.8), followed by black African (114.8), Pakistani (115.7) and Bangladeshi (111). Indian (99.8), mixed race (93.8) and Chinese (75.5) women have all been dying at higher rates than whites
Ben Humberstone, deputy director of the health and life events division at the ONS, said: 'Using more detailed ethnic group categories and adding measures of pre-existing health conditions from hospital data we have been able to build on previous analyses of ethnic disparities in Covid-19 mortality.
'Today's report confirms that when adjusting for age, rates of death involving Covid-19 remain greater for most ethnic minority groups, and most notably so for people of black African, black Caribbean, Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic background.
Asian men and women living in care homes are at a greater risk of death involving coronavirus than white residents, figures suggest.
The Covid-19 death rate for female care home residents from an Asian background was two times as high compared to white residents, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) said.
The death rate for male Asian residents was 1.6 times greater than the rate for white residents.
Black residents were 1.6 and 1.7 times more likely to die with Covid-19 than white men and women respectively.
The ONS estimated mortality rates involving Covid-19 of ethnic groups based on deaths between March 2 and July 28 which could be linked to the 2011 Census.
And analysts used NHS hospital episode statistics to see whether attending hospital in the past three years for a relevant health condition affects the risk of death with the virus.
While they identified an increased risk for certain ethnicities in care homes, the ONS said it is lower than the increased risk between ethnicities living in private homes.
When adjusting for care homes' geography and population density, the risk was reduced for all ethnic groups when compared to the white population.
The increased risk for black males reduced to 1.3, and for black women to 1.4, while for Asian men and women it decreased to 1.4 and 1.7 respectively.
Further adjusting for underlying health status reduced the risk by a small amount for both ethnicities, with the resulting increased risk for black men no longer significant.
The ONS said: 'Overall, the mortality rates among ethnic groups do not show the same extent of increased risk observed among ethnic minorities in the general population.
'After controlling for geography and health, we observe only a small significant increased risk for Asian males and black and Asian females; the risk to Asian females after adjustment is 1.7 times the risk to white females.'
Looking at the wider population, the ONS found black African, black Caribbean and Bangladeshi men had 'significantly higher' rates of death involving Covid-19 than all other ethnic groups, with rates exceeding 250 deaths per 100,000 people,
The death rate for black African males was more than 2.7 times higher than the death rate for white men, who have a rate of 106.8 deaths per 100,000.
Black Caribbean women had a death rate of almost two times that of white women, at 128.8 deaths per