With less than two weeks to go until the World Cup the International Space Station has produced stunning images of the Russian venues which will host the tournament's 64 matches.
The ISS, which orbits at around 250 miles above the Earth, captured pictures of all 12 stadiums, including older venues such as the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow - which helped to put on the 1980 Olympics - as well as a number of grounds which were built especially for this summer's competition.
England will kick off their 2018 campaign at the Volgograd Arena in what used to be called Stalingrad, facing Tunisia on June 18. Workers building the stadium had to work around the corpses and unexploded bombs left over from the World War II battle.
Their remaining group fixtures will take England fans to Nizhny Novgorod for a clash with Panama on June 24 before their third match against Belgium in Kaliningrad - an exclave separated from the rest of the country - on June 28.
Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium will be the tournament's centrepiece, playing host to Russia when they play Saudi Arabia in the World Cup's opening fixture. It will also host the final on July 15.iPhone transfer software
Volgograd Arena, Volgograd
The Volgograd Arena will host England's opening match in Group G against Tunisia, at 7pm on Monday, June 18
The 46,000-capacity stadium in what used to be called Stalingrad will host three group stage fixtures aside from England's
This stadium, which will host England's opening match against Tunisia on June 18, was one of the venues built especially for the 2018 World Cup.
The 46,000-capacity venue, which will also host three other group stage fixtures, will become the home stadium for Russian side Rotor Volgograd after the tournament.
The city of Volgograd is what used to be called Stalingrad, the site of one of the landmark battles of World War II which became a turning point on the Eastern Front.
Workers had to deal with finding unexploded munitions and soldiers' corpses from the Battle of Stalingrad during work on the stadium, and had to incorporate a clear view of a 280-foot war memorial.
Matches: Tunisia v England (June 18), Nigeria v Iceland (June 22), Saudi Arabia v Egypt (June 25), Japan v Poland (June 28)
Nizhny Novgorod Stadium, Nizhny Novgorod
The Nizhny Novgorod Stadium is the venue for England's second fixture against Panama, at 1pm on Sunday, June 24
The stadium in Nizhny Novgorod was built especially for this summer's tournament and hosts four group stage matches
The venue for England's second match, a clash with Panama which will kick off at 1pm UK time on Sunday, June 24, is in Nizhny Novgorod.
Like Volgograd, the stadium was built in preparation for this summer's tournament, and again a local team will take over ownership once the World Cup has finished.
The city, which suffered heavy damage in World War II and was a 'closed city' during the Soviet era, will also welcome fans from Argentina to South Korea in three other group fixtures.
Built on hills overlooking the Volga river, Nizhny Novgorod has been a key commercial city since the 19th century.
Matches: Sweden v South Korea (June 18), Argentina v Croatia (June 21), England v Panama (June 24), Switzerland v Costa Rica (June 27), one last-16 game (July 1), one quarter-final (July 6).
Kaliningrad Stadium, Kaliningrad
England will play their third group match at the Kaliningrad Stadium, facing Belgium at 7pm on Thursday, June 28
The stadium, in an exclave of Russia between Poland and Lithuania, is a new build for this summer's World Cup
England will travel to Kaliningrad for their final group fixture on Thursday, June 28, facing Belgium, their highest-ranked opponents in Group G.
They will head to an exclave of Russia sandwiched between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea, which has been separated from the rest of the country since the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Until World War II, the city was part of Germany and called Koenigsberg. Officials are hoping its location and history make Kaliningrad an attractive destination for fans from other European countries.
The 35,000-seater, another new build, will host three other group fixtures aside from the England game.
Matches: Croatia v Nigeria (June 16), Serbia v Switzerland (June 22), Spain v Morocco (June 25), England v Belgium (June 28).
What England's potential route to the final would look like: The team's total travelling would add up to almost 10,000 miles
Luzhniki Stadium, Moscow
Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium is the centrepiece of the tournament, hosting both Russia's opening match and the final
Russia's largest stadium will be the venue when the hosts get the tournament underway against Saudi Arabia on June 14
The 81,000-seater Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow is the largest stadium in Russia and will serve as the tournament's centrepiece.
It will host the opening fixture between Russia and Saudi Arabia on June 14, one of the two semi-finals, and the World Cup final itself on July 15.
The ground hosted the Champions League final in 2008, when thousands of English fans descended on Moscow to watch Manchester United face Chelsea in the first all-English European Cup final.
Built in the 1950s, it was used during the 1980 Olympic Games and hosts most matches played by the Russian national team and at various times has been home to city clubs Spartak, CSKA and Torpedo.
It was redeveloped last year when the old stands were ripped out and the athletics track from the Olympics torn up as the stadium was turned into a football-specific venue.
Matches: Russia v Saudi Arabia (June 14, opening match), Germany v Mexico (June 17), Portugal v Morocco (June 20), Denmark v France (June 26), one last-16 game (July 1), one semi-final (July 11), final (July 15).
Samara Arena, Samara
The Cosmos Arena in Samara, known as the Samara Arena during the tournament, will host four group stage fixtures
The Cosmos Arena will play host to Russia when they face Uruguay in their final Group A fixture, against Uruguay
The Cosmos Arena, which will go by the name of the Samara Arena during this summer's World Cup, will be the venue for four fixtures.
Hosts Russia will line up there on Monday, June 25, for their final group match against Uruguay.
Finished earlier this year, it has capacity for 45,000 fans and features a 71-yard-high dome, a tribute to the city's role as a centre of the Soviet space programme.
The city of Samara, the sixth-largest in Russia, is in the south of the country. It was home to the offices of the Russian state when they were evacuated from Moscow during the Second World War.
Matches: Costa Rica v Serbia (June 17), Denmark v Australia (June 21), Uruguay v Russia (June 25), Senegal v Colombia (June 28), one last-16 game (July 2), one