Smoking trendy hookah waterpipes could be more dangerous than other forms of smoking, scientists have said.
Researchers have found one draw of the tabletop pipe has the equivalent amount of hazardous substances as an entire cigarette.
Smokers of the sweet-smelling pipers also get a higher dose of chemicals because smoking sessions in bars and lounges can go on for hours.
Contrary to popular belief, the water bowl doesn't filter the smoke and make it 'healthier', the scientists said.
They discovered the water actually creates ultrafine particles which are able to reach the deepest parts of the lungs.
Hookah pipes have grown in popularity in recent years, with up to a fifth of young people in the US and Europe using them as well as famous footballers and celebrities.
Experts have previously warned the negative effects are said to be the equivalent or worse than smoking a pack of cigarettes.
Smoking trendy hookah waterpipes (pictured, Kylie Minogue) could be more dangerous than other forms of smoking, scientists in California have said
Chemists discovered the water in hookah creates ultrafine particles which are able to reach the deepest parts of the lungs. The Canadian rapper Drake is thought to be a fan of shisha smoking after he was snapped on Instagram indulging in a hookah pipe
Hookah is an ancient form of smoking in which charcoal-heated tobacco or non-tobacco based shisha smoke is passed through water before inhalation.
Lead author Professor Veronique Perraud said: 'One of the big myths about hookah usage is that the water in the bowl actually filters out the toxic chemicals, providing a shield for the smoker.
'In the study, we show that this is not the case for most of the gases.
'These measured emissions of volatiles and particles are compared with those from a reference cigarette and represent the equivalent of the emission of one or more entire cigarettes for a single puff of hookah smoke.'
Chemists at University of California Irvine analyzed emissions during a typical waterpipe session using custom-built apparatus.
Professor Perraud said: 'Hookah mainstream smoke—that which is directly inhaled by the user—has many toxic and harmful chemicals, such as nicotine, which can lead to tobacco addiction; irritating carbonyl compounds; and benzene, a known carcinogen.
Hookah is an ancient form of smoking, also called narghile, waterpipe, or hubble bubble smoking, which uses charcoal-heated tobacco or non-tobacco based shisha smoke which is passed through water before inhalation.
It is often seen as less toxic compared to cigarettes, alongside e-cigarettes and vaping.
The sweet flavours available make shisha smoking desirable, especially the young people – around half the smoking teenagers do is in this way.
Hookah smokers can spend long periods of time in lounges and bars inhaling the fumes.
A typical hookah session lasting one hour involves 200 puffs, which results in 90,000 milliliters of smoke