Much of that attention centers on the marquee gubernatorial races in Virginia and New Jersey, as well as New York City's mayoral race, where incumbent Mayor Bill de Blasio is expected to receive a second term.
But Tuesday also marks major decisions for voters in cities around the country, with fiercely fought mayoral races nearing their ends.
Democratic Mayor Kasim Reed is approaching the term-limited end of his time as Atlanta mayor, and that exit brings one of the most contested mayoral races in the country.
Reed has endorsed Democrat Keisha Lance Bottoms. Bottoms leads the pack in the latest round of polling alongside Mary Norwood, who is not identify with a party. The Atlanta mayoral race, like many mayoral races, is technically nonpartisan position.
The two face a crowded field, which includes State Sen. Vincent Fort. Vermont Sen. Bernie Sanders campaigned for Fort and extended fundraising support to the candidate, and the race could be an opportunity for Sanders -- whose presidential candidacy failed to win over the south -- to expand his movement.
Tuesday night is all but guaranteed, however, not to be the end of the mayoral race. Georgia utilizes a majority rule with a runoff system, so if no candidate emerges with more than 50% of the vote -- as is expected -- then the top two candidates will face off on December.
Democratic Mayor Marty Walsh, the incumbent, faces Tito Jackson, a nonpartisan member of the Boston city council.
The Democratic incumbent, Mayor Jennifer Roberts, lost in the primary, which means voters in Charlotte, North Carolina, face a new slate of candidates.
Councilwoman Vi Lyles, the Democrat who defeated Roberts, faces Republican Councilman Kenny Smith.
The winner of Tuesday's contest, be it Lyles or Smith, will be the seventh new mayor Charlotte has had since 2009.
The putatively nonpartisan race pits Democrat against Democrat. Mayor John Cranley seeks a second term and faces off against Cincinnati City Council member Yvette Simpson.
One of the more notable points on the race: the eye-popping funding totals.
Tuesday will see Mayor Frank Jackson face City Councilman Zack Reed to determine if Jackson nets a second term in the northeastern Ohio city.
Like Cleveland, Detroit's election on Tuesday has a Midwestern mayor seeking re-election.
Mayor Mike Duggan faces State Senator Coleman Young after the two emerged from the August primary.
Mayor Tomás Regalado is term-limited from seeking re-election, and those vying to replace him are: Francis Suarez, William Armbrister, Christian Canache and Cynthia Mason Jaquith.
Miami's politics are unique, with a sizable Cuban population and key role in statewide races giving it outsize influence.
On the other side of Florida sits St. Petersburg, where the city's mayor has received national backing for his re-election bid.
Democratic Mayor Rick Kriseman faces Republican Rick Baker.
A scandal rocked the Seattle mayor's office and left the field wide open.
The disturbing revelations mean Tuesday will be a face-off between Jenny Durkan and Cary Moon.
In the crowded August primary, Durkan took 27.9% of the vote to Moon's 17.6%.
This city does things a bit differently than most. It utilizes a system known as ranked-choice voting, where instead of choosing one candidate and having a potential runoff election, voters rank the candidates from most preferred to least.
The system can encourage support for third-party candidates and make a crowded election more practical.
Mayor Betsy Hodges is seeking re-election and faces more than a dozen people.
One of the candidates is listed on the ballot as Captain Jack Sparrow.
The twin city to Minneapolis -- St. Paul -- will also hold its mayoral election on Tuesday.
Mayor Chris Coleman is running for governor of Minnesota, leaving the race open.
In late October, a mailer from a political group linked to the police and local business drew a questionable line from the theft of candidate Melvin Carter's guns, implying without evidence that Carter was responsible for gun violence in the city due to the theft.